US billionaire Ross Perot, who twice ran for president as an independent, has died aged 89, his family says.
A self-made businessman, he pioneered the computer data industry by founding Electronic Data Systems in 1962.
But he was best known for running in the 1992 campaign, advocating balanced budgets and calling for an end to the outsourcing of jobs abroad.
Democrat Bill Clinton won the three-way race, in which Mr Perot took almost 19% of the vote.
Incumbent George HW Bush was defeated.
Mr Perot ran for president again in 1996, after forming the Reform Party. He was diagnosed with leukaemia earlier this year.